魁北克地方獨立建國、成為加拿大國中國


時評:魁北克成為獨特的邦國 加拿大國中國的尷尬

 來源:亞洲週刊 於12/02/2006

  加國總理面對魁北克獨立壓力,先發制人提出「國中國」,高票通過贏讚譽。華裔部長拒絕「分裂」辭職明志,洗脫華人政客花瓶形象。

  加拿大總理哈帕提出在加拿大內的魁北克可以成為一個獨特的邦國的動議,已經在國會獲得兩百六十席以上議員的支持,只有不到二十名議員投了反對票。前所未有的事情是,加拿大左右立場不同的四個政黨,其中包括魁獨政黨魁人政團,都投下了贊成票,這可以說是哈帕少數政府執政以來,獲得跨黨派支持最多的一次投票。顯然,哈帕的這個提議贏得了重大的共識,是相當成功的。

  總理哈帕提出在魁北克可以成為獨特的邦國,這是出乎許多人意料之外的。原因是出身西部的哈帕,是一個堅定的加拿大聯邦主義者,他強調加拿大各省應該是具有平等權力的夥伴,魁北克也應該不例外。舉例而言,加拿大的國會議席設置,隨各地人口的變化,理應做出調整。不能說東部省份,因為開國時代的地位,就維持大部分議席;而西部人口大規模增加,卻增加不了議席。但是,面對魁北克在國會的魁人政團準備再次挑起魁獨地位爭議,以及自由黨黨領袖選舉也將其視為重要競選綱領,哈帕於是先發制人,前進一大步,終於提出了國中之國的動議。

  顯然,從目前的政黨反應來看,這個提議贏得了重大的共識。首先是聯邦自由黨和新民主黨全力支援,接著魁人政團在一天三變之後,也終於表態支援這個動議。民間的反應也不錯。從這個角度出發,可以認定哈帕這個動議,是相當成功的。不但是哈帕服從加拿大政治的現實,從自己的立場上進了一大步,同時也讓加拿大的聯邦主義進了一大步,因為魁人政團自從成軍以來,就以從加拿大獨立出去作為政治目標,但如今卻不得不承認在加拿大裡面。

  哈帕這次的動議,是機會主義的舉動嗎?顯然不是,而是他在總理的大位上思考全國的政治現實,跳脫了堅硬的浪漫主義色彩,以及絕對的民主平等價值,一步到位,為魁北克的未來劃定了一條聯邦主義者所能容忍的最後底線,也就是說,只要魁北克留在加拿大內部,那魁北克可以得到加拿大聯邦所能開出的最大條件,那就是國中之國,而這是對法裔加拿大人在歷史、文化、語言乃至建國過程中所有貢獻的肯定。這樣做,顯然節省了很多的政治遊戲,以及國家為之付出的成本。因為迄今為止,魁獨玩的都是蠶食戰略,以及將魁獨訴求作為籌碼的勒索掠奪策略,幾年來上一次,使加拿大的政治和經濟每次都陷入重大的動湯,損失難以估計。

  魁北克成為國中之國,加拿大其餘部分等於獲得了某種自由。比如,在國會的政治議席的比例,就可以按照人口重新做出調整;加拿大的總理,也不一定非要從魁北克出身不可,非要說法語不行;加拿大的總督更不一定非要從魁北克裡面挑選,這樣使更多的政治人才可以出頭。更重要的是,國際社會不用擔心「魁獨運動七八年來一次」,加拿大的投資環境和加元的穩固也就能有更為長期的發展。

  哈帕以少數政府總理的地位,能夠順時度勢,超越自己,超越政黨立場,做出一個符合加拿大最大政治公約數的動議,即使下次大選失敗,也足以令他青史留名。

  反而,在這次投票前,哈帕內閣中最年輕的華裔部長莊文浩,因為不支援哈帕動議,為了不出席投票,而毅然辭去政府事務部長職位,甘願成為後座議員,引發了政壇的震撼和媒體的焦點關注。莊文浩的理由是,出於對國家的最高忠誠,他相信只有在一個民族不分割的情況下,才能稱之為「加拿大」,這個原則絕對不能妥協。

  不能否認,莊文浩的觀點,代表了一部分加拿大人的觀點,但顯然有值得商榷之處。以莊文浩的原則做標準,那就只有一個結論,不管用文的還是武的手段,都必須把魁北克留在加拿大內,不然加拿大將會不成「加拿大」。

  但另一個方面,從華人參政的角度來說,莊文浩的辭職,則開創了一個里程碑,值得大書特書。

  莊文浩這一辭,徹底洗刷了華人政客是花瓶,是依附權力的傳統刻板印象。莊文浩是華人歷史上第一個正部長級的內閣成員,他如果戀棧,真的有很多理由說服自己改變立場。他有勇氣摘掉烏紗帽來堅持自己的立場,這個辭職,將會得到政界和民間的巨大尊崇,把華人從政者的形象,提升到一種風範,一種風格的高度。


PM declares Quebec nation 'within Canada'

From:CNN.com 11/23/2006

TORONTO, Ontario (AP) -- Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper's stunning motion recognizing Quebec as a nation within Canada has reignited a debate over the divisive issue, with some supporters cautiously viewing it as a bold political step while critics described it as a recipe for tearing apart the country.

Harper's comments in Parliament seemed to pre-empt a planned motion by the Bloc Quebecois that states the French-speaking province is a nation. The wording of that motion, however, does not include the words "within Canada," leaving federalists worried it could be misinterpreted.

Harper said the Bloc Quebecois motion was an "unusual request" that could lead to another referendum for Quebec independence.

"Do Quebecers form a nation within a united Canada? The answer is yes," Harper on Wednesday told a cheering House of Commons to numerous standing ovations. "Do Quebecers form an independent nation? The answer is no -- and it will always be no."

Newspaper editorials weighed in on the issue Thursday, with the liberal Toronto Star saying that Harper's "intervention" in the debate simply fuels it.

"The surprise bombshell that Harper dropped yesterday ... will never placate Quebec separatists, even as it potentially weakens Canada by handing them another argument the next time -- and there almost certainly will be a 'next time' -- they seek to break up this country," said the newspaper.

"Harper's unwise intervention in this debate promises to embolden separatists and create division and bitterness."

While Quebecers have twice voted down referendums seeking independence from Canada, the last one -- in 1995 -- was narrowly defeated, and separatists rumblings continue in the province.

The issue resurfaced when Michael Ignatieff, a front-runner for the Liberal Party leadership, said the French language, history and culture mark Quebecers as a separate people who should be recognized as a nation under the constitution.

The Quebec wing of the Liberals adopted a resolution last month recognizing Quebec as a nation "within Canada" and called for the creation of a task force to advise the next leader on how to make that status official.

Harper's motion, which will be debated later in the week, comes as his Tories languish in third place in Quebec polls, behind the Bloc Quebecois and the Liberals.

On the provincial government level, the response was guarded. Alberta Premier Ralph Klein dismissed Harper's announcement, saying he had no idea what the prime minister's motivation was and that it "might be politics."

"First of all it's not legislation," Klein said. "He can say what he wants to say, as I say what I want to say from time to time, and until it's legislation, there's no need to worry about it."

Manitoba Premier Gary Doer appeared to not be supportive of Harper's motion.

"To me Canada is one nation, one country," said Doer. "I understand Quebec is unique in terms of language, culture and law, but Canada is one country."

Some people in francophone communities on the Prairies said that they have always recognized Quebec as a distinct part of the country.

"Quebec is really the center of the francophonie in Canada, and I don't think there's any problem with that," said Daniel Boucher, president of the Societe Franco-Manitobaine.

"I think it's important for Canada to have a strong Quebec, and it's also important for Canada to have strong [francophone] communities outside Quebec."

The liberal Toronto Sun voiced a measure of caution, saying that Harper "made a brilliant political move" by putting forward the motion. "But whether it will be good for national unity is another matter."

"... Is this a backdoor way of recognizing Quebec as a 'distinct society?' If not, if it's merely a token gesture to make Quebecers 'feel good' about Canada, how will that help?" the editorial said.

"... Harper's move may make the Conservatives more popular in Quebec, for now. But it's long term consequences are unknown and therefore cause for major concern."