書籍介紹
藥學秘教:美國如何變成世界最不安的用藥文化
PC迷幻紀事-從六0年代反動文化到個人電腦的誕生
《Altered State 迷幻異域-快樂丸與青年文化的故事》
大麻文化論 Cannabis Culture
《狂喜的一代:瑞舞與電音的世界》-帶你一窺搖頭丸、瑞舞、電子舞曲之發展始末
【藥解放與英雄榜】
【慾望植物園】與【上癮五百年】
理查•戴文波特-海恩斯《毒品》
國家的嚴格禁煙與法西斯主義
非語言,非藥物治療-心理疾病,吃藥有效?
《搖頭花:一對同志愛侶的 E-Trip》
   
  
PC迷幻紀事-從六○年代反動文化到個人電腦的誕生

PC迷幻紀事》 作者/ 約翰.馬可夫 編/譯者/ 查修傑

 

理想與衝突不斷的六○年代直接促成了個人電腦工業的發展,當時盛行的反文化運動,如搖滾樂、烏茲塔克音樂節、嬉皮文化、反戰運動或民權運動,對於憤怒青年們總有股無法克制的致命吸引力。那是個不羈的年代,更是憤青們吸取精神養分的來源,也是《PC迷幻紀事》一書的根源。作者將六○年代的時代精神與當今電腦、網路的共享宗旨相提並論,追溯發展電腦的小社群在六○年代發生的故事。閱讀本書除可以了解個人電腦的起源外,更可同時進行一場六○年代的時光之旅。

內容簡介

現今矽谷呼風喚雨的大人物們,並沒有忘記個人電腦和六○年代反主流文化間的連繫。以蘋果電腦創辦人史提夫•賈伯斯為例,他始終相信嚐試迷幻藥是他生命中最重要的兩三項經歷之一。這是一個新穎的觀點──六○年代的反文化運動直接促成了個人電腦產業的發展。那是一個充滿理想主義色彩的時代,美國西海岸活躍著一群尋求技術上的飛躍,從而使人類通往一個全新世界的科學家。

個人電腦之所以誕生在那個年代,絕非巧合。就在反越戰聲浪、爭民權運動,和迷幻藥實驗風潮的最高峰,個人電腦也在幾個產官贊助的研究團隊,以及迫不及待想要實現個人駕馭電腦夢想的業餘玩家手中誕生了。這些電腦先鋒各自以不同方式,營造了個人電腦問世的氛圍和基礎,而個人電腦則在過去三十年創造了資訊經濟。如今,資訊產業的存在等於是見證了這些人部份理想的實現。

那是一個不羈的年代:一個充滿示威抗議、迷幻藥實驗、反傳統社群,和無政府理想主義的時代。一九六○末,美國政治社會經歷大幅動盪起伏,撕裂了五○年代的中產階級安逸表象。從民權運動、迷幻藥、女權問題、生態意識,到反戰運動,都促成抗拒美國戰後正統價值的反主流文化(counterculture)形成。今日我們司空慣見的電腦技術,其原始概念即成形於此一不羈年代,一個充滿示威抗議、迷幻藥實驗、反傳統社群,和無政府理想主義的時代。

這本書就是要回溯這不到二十年的時間裡,區區幾平方英哩的範圍內發生的政治、文化,與科技潮流交會激盪。思想的衝擊,催生出一個不平凡的概念:個人電腦,也就是一人完全掌控一台電腦,並藉由電腦拓展與傳達思維的創見。在一九六○年代晚期,這樣的概念已開始在舊金山半島中部隱然浮現。

六○年代的美國。那是一個充滿反戰宣言和示威活動的時代,那也是一個反文化的時代——一個自由的,而且勇於自發去嘗試新的事物,擁護新的主張的時代。也因此作者認為六○年代的反文化運動,直接促成了個人電腦工業的發展,這是相當新穎的觀點。無論如何,當時的個人電腦事業充滿理想主義色彩,美國西海岸活躍著一個尋求技術上的飛躍從而使人類真正通往一個新的世界的科學家團體。透過講述個人電腦業發展的故事,作者告訴讀者:美國人現在信奉的許多文化觀點和信念,就是在那喧囂的十年中發展形成的。

科幻小說作家威廉•吉布森(William Gibson)曾說:「未來已然降臨,只是還未普及。」此一觀察正可貼切描述本書中的小社群,它就像十五世紀義大利佛羅倫斯一樣,地處邊陲一隅,卻在五百年前開創文藝復興運動,憾動全世界。

作者馬科夫是一個說故事的行家,全書立基於大量專訪與口述資料。他將所有故事巧妙編織起來,展示了單獨事件之間微妙而關鍵的線索,鋪陳出整個歷史脈絡。書中的精彩情節非僅有關技術,還包括他們的生活點滴及個人遭遇──他們試過的迷幻藥、性體驗、搖滾樂,以及他們走過的遊行場子。

作者簡介

John Markoff(約翰•馬可夫) 曾為《時代》(Times)雜誌撰寫電腦科技文章,現為《紐約時報》(New York Times)資深記者。著有暢銷書《電腦叛客》(Cyberpunk: Outlaws and Hackers on the Computer Frontier)、《小心駭客》(Takedown)等。矽谷的文化觀察家保羅•沙弗(Paul Saffo)這麼形容他:「馬可夫屬於非常特殊的信息專業人(infonaut)。他有學界的好奇心和執著,但更難能可貴的是,他也有與現實非常接軌的一面,例如他是為《紐約時報》,而不是什麼艱澀的專業雜誌寫文章。馬可夫最重要的地方在於他不只是報導獨家消息,而總是報導獨家幕後的獨家。他告訴我們早已發生而我們一無所知的情事,接著他又在更大的脈絡底下往下深究一層。」

查修傑 曾任職媒體,譯有《決戰資訊高速公路》、《網路商機大未來》等書。

英文簡介

What the Dormouse Said: How the 60s Counterculture Shaped the Personal Computer

Most histories of the personal computer industry focus on technology or business. John Markoff’s landmark book is about the culture and consciousness behind the first PCs—the culture being counter– and the consciousness expanded, sometimes chemically. It’s a brilliant evocation of Stanford, California, in the 1960s and ’70s, where a group of visionaries set out to turn computers into a means for freeing minds and information. In these pages one encounters Ken Kesey and the phone hacker Cap’n Crunch, est and LSD, The Whole Earth Catalog and the Homebrew Computer Lab. What the Dormouse Said is a poignant, funny, and inspiring book by one of the smartest technology writers around.


What the Dormouse Said: How the 60s Counterculture Shaped the Personal Computer Reviews

I highly recommend this book. THEY WERE ALL ON ACID. This book does for personal computing what "The Making of the Atomic Bomb" did for the Manhattan project. Yet they put that new-found insight to tremendous use. I found the stories in this book both entertaining and enlightening. Literally. It delves into the personalities, social climate and technological breakthroughs that added up to the personal computer industry as we know it.


It tries to show how the technology, culture, and politics of the 1960s converged to create the personal computer revolution. The personal computer. I think this book is well worth reading. The first is that the author was unsuccessful in supporting his thesis that the use of psychedelic drugs, particularly LSD, was a significant factor in the development of computer technology and the philosophy of putting computers into the hands of individuals. I felt like I was only given a small taste of what the book was really supposed to be about. It is fascinating to see how so much of the technology used in today's individual and networked computing was developed 30 to 40 years ago based on Doug Engelbart's vision of the computer as tool for augmenting human intelligence. And it attempts to go further. Also, the book really only got to its point - the impact on the personal computer industry - in the last 20 pages.

Author John Markoff provides an interesting glimpse of some of the more interesting characters that transformed computing technology from a number crunching function dominated by corporate stuffed shirts and military contractors to an anarchic society dedicated to sharing ideas and programs. The fact that LSD and other drugs were used by many computer engineers of the time is established, but no evidence is presented that this was a causative factor in any subsequent developments in the computer industry. It will be of interest to today's technophiles who have an interest in history, as well as to non-technical readers interested in understanding the role of computers in today's rapidly changing society. Whether operated in standalone or networked fashion, nothing in the last two decades has changed our lives more. This doesn't take anything away, however, from the rest of the book, which provided some very interesting history. Computers have so strongly impacted our lives so quickly that we haven't had the chance to step back and understand the history behind them. Whether you're at home surfing the Internet, editing a spreadsheet at work, or just wishing you had nice laptop like the guy next to you at Panera, you're affected by the personal computer.

I did have a couple of issues with this book. It also shows how the personalities and political leanings of the players in the early computer industry set the stage for today's issues: Should software be the property of the developer to be bought and sold, or freely distributed. How should computer technology affect how music and movies are distributed. The seeds for these current issues were sown 30 or more years ago, and Markoff does an excellent job of providing the background information necessary to make sense of them. "What the Dormouse Said: How the 60s Counterculture Shaped the Personal Computer Industry" provides that history.


No such evidence exists, in spite of the author's efforts at implication. My question would be how much is that Markoff and how much stems from the marketing department of the publisher. I agree with the last two reviews, even though the reviews' authors do not take the same position. However, that sort of mental activity was way beyond my meager comprehension. To paraphrase, "I coulda been a contenda." The basic historical narrative comes through on its own quite well.

I also agree with Jerry that the counterculture/drugs, sex, LSD stuff is overdone.

However, it is very easy to ignore the distractions when the narrative wanders into psychedelia.

As someone who knows nothing about the origins of the personal computer, I found the Markoff history to be utterly fascinating.

A reviewer, the late Guy Davenport, chalked up Fox-Weber's effort to a simple attempt to capitalize on the subject of pedophilia in an effort to sell his book.

Similarly, Markoff or his publisher may be guilty of the same thing.

I attended MIT briefly in 1954-55, and there were Norbert Weiner and Lincoln Lab, right there.

Obviously, as Jerry says, stuff was going on all over the country, not just in Palo Alto and environs.

I am glad that someone like "Gnetworker" can vouch for the authenticity of the history.

In a similarbut not relatedvein, a biography of the painter Balthus by Nicholas Fox-Weber appeared some years ago in which the author expended a lot of effort intimating Balthus was a pedophile.


An ear for language delights, in my view, in these ranges and groups of words]. It is an instance of what C. This is how Markoff seems to feel when he narrates "mere coding" as consistently farmed out. While the counter culture did indeed shape the personal computer revolution world wide, and while someone needed to narrate the story before the early 1970s, and Markoff does this, this book narrates the story in a white, male, narcissistic fashion in which the center of the world is San Francisco.

This was the New Yorker artist who in the 1980s issued a number of popular posters which positively celebrated the Reagan era's dawn of narrowed focus, because for various hip locales, the artist drew the features of that locale completely out of scale. In the 2001 ACM paper in which Alan Kay heroically celebrated Doug Engelbart's contribution, Kay celebrates programming, not the vision "thing". In fine, this is a book whose framework is dishonest in a USA and a world in which productive forces merged at many different places, not only in the Bay Area. The hardware copped the realization that since mainframes by 1970 had already evolved into circuits that were less machines than almost pure information, there was no lower bound to their size. Thus Markoff fails to reflect that in the Bay Area, drugs and computers both represented a commodification of existence in which people properly esconced within taxpayer supported institutions need no longer manifest any personal responsibility to the taxpayer and their government, conveniently alienated from them by the Vietnam war.

This meant programming, not drug-taking or navel-gazing. What the dormouse said was in fact to empower yourself, and only yourself, by creating or preferably swiping a range of new commodities which only differentiated the wealth gap. French Canadian war workers assembling weapons under the supervision of one of Markoff's heroes are dismissed in a phrase "French-Canadian peasants". S. This is because "peasant" is part of an n-tuple, a range, consisting of farmer, peasant, serf and slave, and in this n-tuple the peasant is bound by custom, and the lack of a cash economy (to which Canucks had access to in 1941), to the land. There was little all that world-historical about this sordid business. The style jars, disturbs: but the issue is not only a false note beneath the standards of the Times for whom Markoff works, it is also that people in North America, outside black and white sharecroppers before the War on Poverty of the 1960s in the American south, cannot be properly described as "peasants".

It is true as Markoff relates that the drug culture interacted with computing in the 1960s and 1970s.in the Bay Area and elsewhere. Nonetheless, Markoff makes a big fat joke out of Wirth, a joke worthy of the students tormenting Dr Rath in Der Blaue Engel, when Wirth insists, in his narrative, on two extra keys (control and alt) for a new keyboard. I began to realize its low journalistic standards when, in writing of GUI pioneer Doug Engelbart, Markoff carelessly has him, in 1950, thinking about joining the "Peace Corps". This is just sloppy journalism: the book can't be written off as pop history and thus journalism if the journalism itself is of low standard. It dawned on me that Markoff writes unthinkingly in a "Saul Steinberg" style. Niklaus Wirth is the unjustly uncelebrated inventor of Pascal, Modula and Oberon, objectively quite a track record as compared to the one-to-one correspondence of American computing luminaries with languages they have authored.

Basically, you don't get into the ethnocentric playbook without the proper background. In Saul Steinberg logic, a certain number of rings in a torus constitute an evaluative, almost a moral scale, which permits Markoff to be lazy when his descriptions range outside a Stanford and New York City access. It gets worse. But after the Judy Miller scandal, in which a New York Times reporter who had enthusiastically and with insufficient research beat the drums for war in 2003 was briefly jailed *pour encourager* at Markoff's paper, it's clear that Job One at the Times is maintaining strict ideological boundaries. There are few women in this book apart from the redoubtable Pam Hart and no people representative of the Earth's majority, and the reason is that even in the 1960s, the technical elite was in search of a way to dialectically reassert its Power and Control as against Betty Friedan and Fanon. There was little place for these people in the Bay Area, where seekers generally had Ivy League credentials enabling them to support their search more or less conveniently. Had Wirth been an American, of course, he would be celebrated as the "inventor" of these keys which are in use today, which make keyboards usable, and without which today's international computing wouldn't have been possible.

They found it and as a result what IS a tool of liberation IS ALSO a tool of enslavement and Western domination. Lewis, writing about the Renaissance of the 16th century called "new learning and new ignorance", in which the ethnocentric narrative is destroying the real history. The problem here is that Ted Nelson (who is mentioned, although his trashing by the staff of Wired magazine in 1998 is not) meant it when in Computer Lib he said "you can and must understand computers". The software was an application of the discovery in Europe and not the USA that software written (in the Fortran style) as lists of instructions without a modular structure seldom worked no matter how large and impersonal, or small and cuddly, the machine happened to be. [The farmer participates in the cash economy: the serf is unlike the peasant bound by law: the slave is chattel and the zero point of my series, if you must know. Bill Gates is the implicit villain of the piece with his 1976 letter to hobbyists but I am afraid that billg had a point, and as a result of his efforts, people with degrees from crummy state and junior colleges get above all paid for their efforts, and perform at and beyond the limit of their capabilities. And, when Markoff quotes John Doerr on this being the biggest legal transfer of wealth in history, he fails to mention that as a result, according to the CIA world factbook, 80% of Americans have lost ground while 20% have done well out of scale to their contribution to a society.which lacks health insurance, whose education system in New York City has been adjudged unconstitutionally bad under the constitution of New York, and which could not manage the New Orleans disaster.

It gets even worse. Drugs and software in fact represented something one could "cop" while poor saps in Chicago coded Cobol and paid taxes that supported the development of the valuable software artifacts. Furthermore, Wirth, like his mentor and friend Edsger Dijkstra (who is unmentioned in the book as a critic of drug-addled development) were in the Californian-Markoff scheme of things speed bumps in the way of a reified and commodified Progress because both had the bad grace to think critically about software, and neither thought that Great Men should never code actual software unless their Greatness be deconstructed. I am certain that Harry Truman had no such operation, and, of course, the Peace Corps was founded ten years later by President Kennedy. The visions in the hot tub had already been when I was a kid a Sunday supplement gee-whiz feature. Today, more than thirty years after Alan Kay's dynabook, we apparently still think that the MIT laptop, as a commodity and as only a commodity, is the Answer, and that simple compassion for others, as opposed to psychodrama, might not be the Answer.

出版資訊

作者:John Markoff

譯者:查修傑

出版社:大塊文化

出版日期:2006 年 07 月 05 日

語言別:繁體中文